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  • Electrostatics Theory Notes Contiinues

    Class Notes For 12 students Electrostatic potential Potential due to a point charge Potential due to an electric diple Potential due to a system of charges Equipotential surfaces Potential energy of system of charges Potential energy in an external field Electrostatics of conductor Dielectrics and polarisation Capacitors and capacitance The parallel plate capacitor Effect of dielectric on capacitance Combinaion of capacitors Energy stored in a capacitor Van De Graff’s generator

  • Electrostatics Theory Notes

    Class Notes for Class 12 Students.. easy to read and learn Electric charge: conservation Conductors and insulators Charging by induction Basic principle of electric charge Coulomb’s law Forces between multiple charges Electric field Electric field lines Electric flux Electric dipole Dipole in a uniform external field Continuous charge distribution Gauss’s law Application of Gauss’s law

  • Electricity Notes Class 12

    Electric current Electric current in conductor Ohm’s law and its limitations Drift of electrons and origin of resistivity Resisitivity of various material Temperature dependence of resistivity Electric energy, power Combination of resistors Cells, EMF, internal resistance Cells in series and parallel Kirchoff’s rule Wheatstone bridge, Meter bridge Potentiometer

  • Dual Nature of Radiation and Photoelectric Effect

    Dual Nature of Radiation & Matter The minimum energy needed by an electron to come out from a metal surface is called the work function of the metal. Energy (greater than the work function (φο) required for electron emission from the metal surface can be supplied by suitably heating or applying strong electric field or irradiating it by light of suitable frequency. Photoelectric Effect Photoelectric effect is the phenomenon of emission of electrons by metals when illuminated by light of suitable frequency. Certain metals respond to ultraviolet light while others are sensitive even to the visible light. Photoelectric effect involves conversion of light energy into electrical energy. It follows the law of conservation of energy. The photoelectric emission is an instantaneous process and possesses certain special features. Photoelectric current depends on the intensity of incident light (directly proportional) the potential difference applied between the two electrodes (existence of stopping potential) the nature of the emitter material The stopping potential (Vo) depends on the frequency of incident light (directly proportional) the nature of the emitter material For a given frequency of incident light, it is independent of its intensity. The stopping potential is directly related to the maximum kinetic energy of electrons emitted: e V0 = (1/2) m v2max = Kmax Below a certain frequency (threshold frequency), characteristic of the metal, no photoelectric emission takes place, no matter how large the intensity may be. The classical wave theory could not explain the main features of photoelectric effect. Its picture of continuous absorption of energy from radiation could not explain the independence of Kmax on intensity, the existence of ν0 and the instantaneous nature of the process. Einstein explained these features on the basis of photon picture of light. Einstein Photoelectric Equation According to this, light is composed of discrete packets of energy called quanta or photons. Each photon carries an energy E (= hν), which depend on the frequency (ν) of incident light and not on its intensity. Photoelectric emission from the metal surface occurs due to absorption of a photon (energy hν) by an electron. If this quantum of energy absorbed exceeds the minimum energy needed for the electron to escape from the metal surface (work function φ0), the electron is emitted with maximum kinetic energy. Einstein’s photoelectric equation is in accordance with the energy conservation law as applied to the photon absorption by an electron in the metal. The maximum kinetic energy (1/2)m v2max is equal to the photon energy (hν) minus the work function φ0 (= hν0) of the target metal: Kmax = ½ m v2max = V0e = hν - φ0 = h(ν - ν0) Millikan’s first precise measurements confirmed the Einstein’s photoelectric equation and obtained an accurate value of Planck’s constant h. This led to the acceptance of particle or photon description (nature) of electromagnetic radiation, introduced by Einstein. Particle Nature of Light Einstein arrived at the important result, that the light quantum can also be associated with momentum. A definite value of energy as well as momentum is a strong sign that the light quantum can be associated with a particle. This particle was later named photon. In interaction of radiation with matter, radiation behaves as if it is made up of particles called photons. Each photon has energy E (= hν) and momentum p (= h ν/c = h/λ), and speed c, the speed of light. Wave Nature of Matter The wave nature of light shows up in the phenomena of interference, diffraction and polarization. On the other hand, in photoelectric effect and Compton effect which involve energy and momentum transfer, radiation behaves as if it is made up of a bunch of particles - the photons. Thus, radiation has dual nature: wave and particle. The nature of experiment determines whether a wave or particle description is best suited for understanding the experimental result. Reasoning that radiation and matter should be symmetrical in nature, Louis Victor de Broglie attributed a wave-like character to matter (material particles). The waves associated with the moving material particles are called matter waves or de Broglie waves. de Broglie Equation The de Broglie wavelength (λ) associated with a moving particle is related to its momentum p as λ = h/p The dualism of matter is inherent in the de Broglie relation which contains a wave concept (λ) and a particle concept (p). The de Broglie wavelength is independent of the charge and nature of the material particle. It is significantly measurable (of the order of the atomic-planes spacing in crystals) only in case of sub-atomic particles like electrons, protons, etc. K = 1/2 mv2 = p2/2m Which gives λ = h/p = h/(2mK) = h/√(2meV) Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle It is not possible to measure both the position and momentum of an electron (or any other particle) at the same time exactly. ΔxΔp≈h/2π , where Δx is the uncertainty in x and Δp is the uncertainty in p Davisson and Germer Experiment Electron diffraction experiments by Davisson and Germer, and by G. P. Thomson, as well as many later experiments, have verified and confirmed the wave-nature of electrons. The de Broglie hypothesis of matter waves supports the Bohr’s concept of stationary orbits.

  • Ray Optics Notes

    Geometrical Optics, Radiation concepts, real and virtual images. Speculative and diffuse reflection, reflection law, total reflection. Absorption, and transmission, refractive law. Paraxial approximation, flat surface imaging and thin prisms. Reproduction in spherical interfaces, thin lenses, thick lenses, general lens systems. Graphical beam construction. The major plane concept. Apertures, field stops, vignetting, F-numbers and numerical aperture. Camera, eye, magnifier, microscopy, telescopes, ocular and projectors.

  • Conceptual Problems IIT JEE and NEET

    Rare Conceptual Problems for IIT JEE Mains Advance NEET and Other Competitive Exams.

  • Thermodynamics IIT Level Notes

    For All Competition Exams Free Download all notes.

  • Communication System

    Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation, satellite communication. Need for modulation, amplitude modulation.

  • Semiconductor and Digital Circuits

    Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only) Semiconductor diode - I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode and their characteristics, zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor and transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration), basic idea of analog and digital signals, Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).

  • Atoms & Nuclei

    Atoms Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Nuclei Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivityalpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.

  • Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation

    Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light. Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).

  • Ray And Wave Optics

    Ray Optics and Optical Instruments Ray Optics:: Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism. Scattering of light - blue colour of sky and reddish apprearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset. Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers. Wave Optics Wave optics: Wave front and Huygen's principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle. Interference Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarised light Brewster's law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.

  • Electromagnetic waves

    Electromagnetic Waves Basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their transverse nature (qualitative ideas only). Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

  • Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

    Electromagnetic InductionElectromagnetic induction; Faraday’s laws, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual induction. Alternating Current Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current. AC generator and transformer.

  • Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism

    Moving Charges and Magnetism Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids, Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter. Magnetism and Matter Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferro - magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.

  • Electricity

    Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance. Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell,combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge. Potentiometer - principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

  • Electrostats

    Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field.Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitorand capacitance, combination fcapacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.

  • Electrostats Colorful Notes

    Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field.Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitorand capacitance, combination fcapacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.

  • XII Physics Notes

    CBSE Class XII Study Material Prepared by Zietmaysore Faculty Team. Physics Chapter Maps, Numerical and Notes

  • NTSE KVPY Olympiad Class X

    Foundation advnace Level For IIT NTSE KVPY and Olympiad.

  • IIT Advance Level Notes By BPS

    Extremely Fantastic Notes Prepared By BPS for IIT Advance. Download Free Here.

  • NCERT Solution 11 Part-1

    Units and Measurement,Kinematics,Motion in a Straight Line,Motion in a Plane,Laws of Motion,Work, Engery and Power,System of Particles and Rotational Motion,Gravitation,Mechanical Properties of Solids,Mechanical Properties of Fluids,Thermal Properties of Matter,Thermodynamics,Kinetic Theory,Oscillations and WavesWave motion. Transverse and longitudinal waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect

  • HC Verma Solution Volume -2

    Heat and Temperature,Kinetic Theory of Gases,Calorimetry,Laws of Thermodynamics,Specific Heat Capacities of Gases,Heat Transfer,Electric Field and Potential,Gauss's Law,Capacitors,Electric Current in Conductors,Thermal and Chemical Effects of Electric Current,Magnetic Field,Magnetic Field due to a Current,Permanent Magnets,Magnetic Properties of Matter,Electromagnetic Induction,Alternating Current,Electromagnetic Waves,Electric Current through Gases,Photoelectric Effect and Wave-Particle Duality,Bohr's Model and Physics of the Atom,X-rays,Semiconductors and Semiconductor Devices,The Nuclei,The Special Theory of Relativity

  • HC Verma Solution Volume -1

    Introduction to Physics,Physics and Mathematics,Rest and Motion: Kinematics,The Forces, Newton’s Laws of Motion, Friction, Circular Motion,Work and Energy,Centre of Mass, Linear Momentum, Collision,Rotational Mechanics,Gravitation,Simple Harmonic Motion, Fluid Mechanics,Some Mechanical Properties of Matter, Wave Motion and Wave on a String,Sound Wave,Light Waves,Geometrical Optics, Optical Instruments,dispersion and Spectra, Speed of Light Photometry

  • Class 11 Physics Advance Level Notes

    Study Notes For IIT JEE Advance NTSE KVPY Olympiad Etc Topic Covers: Kinematics, Newtons Laws of Motion, Work Power Energy, Rotational Motion, Gravitation, Heat and Heat Transfer, Thermodynamics, Waves and Oscillations, Unit and Dimensions.

  • Class 12 Physics Advance Level Notes

    Notes For IIT Advance, KVPY NTSE and other competitive Exams. Topic Covers: Electorstatics, Electircity, Megnetic Effect of Current, Magnetism, Electromagnetic Induction, Alternating Current, Electromagnetic Waves, Ray and Wave Optics, Atoms, Nuclie, Semiconductors, Digital Electronics and others