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  • Effect of odor on helpfulness in rats

    Despite their reputation, rats are surprisingly sociable and regularly help each other out. Researchers have shown that a rat just has to smell another rat that is engaged in helpful behavior to increase their own helpfulness. This is the first study to show that just the smell of a cooperating rat is enough to trigger a helpful response.
  • Offshore submarine freshwater discovery raises hopes for islands worldwide

    Twice as much freshwater is stored offshore of Hawai'i Island than previously thought, revealed a new study with important implications for volcanic islands around the world. An extensive reservoir of freshwater within the submarine southern flank of the Hualalai aquifer was mapped by researchers with Hawai'i EPSCoR 'Ike Wai project, showing a way in which substantial volumes of freshwater are transported from onshore to offshore submarine aquifers along the coast of Hawai'i Island.
  • Neutrinos yield first experimental evidence of catalyzed fusion dominant in many stars

    Scientists report the detection of neutrinos from the sun, directly revealing for the first time that the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (CNO) fusion-cycle is at work in our sun.
  • Scientists discover a motif that guides assembly of the algal pyrenoid

    Researchers have discovered that assembly of the algal pyrenoid, a structure that mediates the incorporation of carbon dioxide into sugars, is guided by the presence of a particular protein sequence, or motif.
  • Plants: Scientists solve the mystery behind an enigmatic organelle, the pyrenoid

    Researchers have discovered how Rubisco holoenzymes assemble to form the fluid-like matrix of the algal pyrenoid, an organelle that mediates the incorporation of carbon dioxide into sugars.
  • Specific bacterium in the gut linked to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

    Researchers have detected a connection between Brachyspira, a genus of bacteria in the intestines, and IBS -- especially the form that causes diarrhea. Although the discovery needs confirmation in larger studies, there is hope that it might lead to new remedies for many people with irritable bowel syndrome.
  • Community conservation reserves protect fish diversity in tropical rivers

    Small, community-based reserves in Thailand's Salween River Basin are serving as critical refuges for fish diversity in a region whose subsistence fisheries have suffered from decades of over-harvesting.
  • Ancient blanket made with 11,500 turkey feathers

    New research sheds light on the production of an 800-year-old turkey feather blanket and explores the economic and cultural aspects of raising turkeys to supply feathers in the ancient Southwest.
  • New study explains important cause of fatal influenza

    It is largely unknown why influenza infections lead to an increased risk of bacterial pneumonia. Researchers have now described important findings leading to so-called superinfections, which claim many lives around the world every year.
  • A microscope for everyone: Researchers develop open-source optical toolbox

    Researchers have developed an optical toolbox to build microscopes for a few hundred euros that deliver high-resolution images comparable to commercial microscopes that cost up to a thousand times more. The 3D printed open-source modular system can be combined in the way the research question requires -- from the observation of living organisms in the incubator to a toolbox for education.
  • Novel haplotype-led approach to increase the precision of wheat breeding

    Wheat researchers are pioneering a new technique that promises to improve gene discovery for the globally important crop.
  • Researchers uncover the unique way stem cells protect their chromosome ends

    Telomeres are specialized structures at the end of chromosomes which protect our DNA and ensure healthy division of cells. According to a new study, the mechanisms of telomere protection are surprisingly unique in stem cells.
  • Ice sheets on the move: How north and south poles connect

    Over the past 40,000 years, ice sheets thousands of kilometers apart have influenced one another through sea level changes, according to new research. New modelling of ice sheet changes during the most recent glacial cycle demonstrates, for the first time, that during this period, changes in the Antarctic ice sheet were driven by the melting ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere.
  • Space travel can adversely impact energy production in a cell

    Studies of both mice and humans who have traveled into space reveal that critical parts of a cell's energy production machinery, the mitochondria, can be made dysfunctional due to changes in gravity, radiation exposure and other factors. These findings are part of an extensive research effort across many scientific disciplines to look at the health effects of travel into space.
  • Landmark study generates first genomic atlas for global wheat improvement

    In a landmark discovery for global wheat production, a team has sequenced the genomes for 15 wheat varieties representing breeding programs around the world, enabling scientists and breeders to much more quickly identify influential genes for improved yield, pest resistance and other important crop traits.
  • Genetic study shows that the risk of pre-eclampsia is related to blood pressure and BMI

    An international study has revealed that the genetic risk of pre-eclampsia - a potentially dangerous condition in pregnancy - is related to blood pressure and body mass index.
  • Scientists determine the structure of glass-shaping protein in sponges

    Researchers have determined the three dimensional (3D) structure of a protein responsible for glass formation in sponges. They explain how the earliest and, in fact, the only known natural protein-mineral crystal is formed.
  • New modified wheat could help tackle global food shortage

    Researchers at the University of York have created a new modified wheat variety that increases grain production by up to 12%.
  • Phytoplankton disturbed by nanoparticles

    Products derived from nanotechnology are efficient and highly sought-after, yet their effects on the environment are still poorly understood. A research team has investigated the effects of nanosilver, currently used in almost 450 products for its antibacterial properties, on the algae known as Poterioochromonas malhamensis. The results show that nanosilver disturb the alga's entire metabolism. Its membrane becomes more permeable, the cellular ROS increases and photosynthesis is less effective.
  • Basketball on the brain: Neuroscientists use sports to study surprise

    Neuroscientists tracked the brains and pupils of self-described basketball fans as they watched March Madness games, to study how people process surprise -- an unexpected change of circumstances that shifts an anticipated outcome. They found that that shifts in the pattern of activity in high-level brain areas only happened at moments that contradicted the watchers' current beliefs about which team was more likely to win.
  • Gut hormones' regulation of fat production abnormal in obesity, fatty liver disease

    Gut hormones play an important role in regulating fat production in the body. One key hormone, released a few hours after eating, turns off fat production by regulating gene expression in the liver, but this regulation is abnormal in obesity, researchers found in a new study.
  • Breaking the skill limit, pianists attain more delicate touch

    Scientists have discovered a training method to further improve the delicate touch of pianists by optimizing the method rather than increase the amount of training. They developed a system that freely controls the weight of piano keys using a haptic device, which enables to control the strength and direction of the force. The results of experiments showed that enhancing the somatosensory function of fingertips with AHT could improve the accuracy of keystrokes.
  • Everyday activities enhance personal well-being

    Physical activity makes happy and is important to maintain psychic health. Researchers studied the brain regions which play a central role in this process. Their findings reveal that even everyday activities, such as climbing stairs, significantly enhance well-being, in particular of persons susceptible to psychiatric disorders.
  • A new species of rare phylum Loricifera discovered in the deep-sea surrounding Japan

    The Loricifera is a microscopic, sediment-dwelling marine invertebrate, with a head covered in over 200 spines and an abdomen with a protective shell - known as a lorica. Since it was first discovered in 1983, just under 40 species have been written about. Now, that number is one more thanks to a group of scientists who reported on a new genus and species of Loricifera.
  • A growth mindset of interest can spark innovative thinking

    Researchers find that viewing interests as developable, not fixed, can help people make connections among diverse fields that others might miss, with implications for innovation. Their research suggests that understanding this can benefit organizations in generating innovative solutions and ideas, job seekers taking on new or wide-ranging responsibilities, and can create a culture for interdisciplinary learning and problem-solving.
  • New mechanism of pain control revealed

    Researchers have identified a unique population of astrocytes in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord of mice that produces pain hypersensitivity when activated by neurons carrying signals down from the brain. The findings indicate that the role of descending neurons in controlling spinal pain transmission is not limited to suppression and point to this group of astrocytes as a new target for enhancing the effect of chronic pain treatments.
  • New discovery by SMART allows early detection of shade avoidance syndrome in plants

    Researchers have developed a tool that allows early detection of shade avoidance syndrome (SAS) in plants using Raman spectroscopy in significantly less time compared to conventional methods. The discovery can help farmers better monitor plant health and lead to improved crop yield.
  • Cooking with wood may cause lung damage

    Advanced imaging with CT shows that people who cook with biomass fuels like wood are at risk of suffering considerable damage to their lungs from breathing in dangerous concentrations of pollutants and bacterial toxins, according to a new study.
  • In fire-prone West, plants need their pollinators -- and vice versa

    A new study grounded in the northern Rockies explores the role of wildfire in the finely tuned dance between plants and their pollinators. Previous studies have looked at how fire affects plants, or how fire affects animals. But what is largely understudied is the question of how fire affects both, and about how linkages within those ecological networks might respond to fire disturbance. The findings are particularly significant in light of recent reports about the rapid and widespread decline of insects globally.
  • Patterning method could pave the way for new fiber-based devices, smart textiles

    Multimaterial fibers that integrate metal, glass and semiconductors could be useful for applications such as biomedicine, smart textiles and robotics. But because the fibers are composed of the same materials along their lengths, it is difficult to position functional elements, such as electrodes or sensors, at specific locations. Now, researchers have developed a method to pattern hundreds-of-meters-long multimaterial fibers with embedded functional elements.
  • Ghost fishing threatens endangered river dolphins, critically endangered turtles, otters

    Waste fishing gear in the River Ganges poses a threat to wildlife including otters, turtles and dolphins, new research shows.
  • Research creates hydrogen-producing living droplets, paving way for alternative future energy source

    Scientists have built tiny droplet-based microbial factories that produce hydrogen, instead of oxygen, when exposed to daylight in air.
  • When consumers trust AI recommendations, or resist them

    The key factor in deciding how to incorporate AI recommenders is whether consumers are focused on the functional and practical aspects of a product (its utilitarian value) or on the experiential and sensory aspects of a product (its hedonic value).
  • Microbes help unlock phosphorus for plant growth

    A research team has shown that microbes taken from trees growing beside pristine mountain-fed streams in Western Washington could make phosphorus trapped in soils more accessible to agricultural crops.
  • Cutting edge technology to bioprint mini-kidneys

    Researchers have used cutting edge technology to bioprint miniature human kidneys in the lab, paving the way for new treatments for kidney failure and possibly lab-grown transplants.
  • T. rex had huge growth spurts, but other dinos grew slow and steady

    By cutting into dinosaur bones and analyzing the growth lines, a team of researchers discovered that T. rex and its closest relatives got big thanks to a huge growth spurt in adolescence, while its more distant cousins kept on growing a little bit every year throughout their lives.
  • Simple new testing method aims to improve time-release drugs

    Engineers filled a glass tube bent like a tuning fork, kept vibrating by a circuit at its resonance frequency, with simulated stomach and intestine contents and passed an over-the-counter time-release drug granule through the tube. They observed a brief change in the frequency. When plotted, they could compare the peaks of resonance frequency against the time to learn the buoyant mass of the drug granule at that moment.
  • To push or to pull? How many-limbed marine organisms swim

    Couinter-intuitively, small marine animals don't use their limbs or propulsors to push themselves through the water while swimming. Instead, their appendages create negative pressure behind them that pulls the animal through the water, scientists report.
  • Can we harness a plant's ability to synthesize medicinal compounds?

    Anthraquinones are a class of naturally occurring compounds prized for their medicinal properties, as well as for other applications, including ecologically friendly dyes. Despite wide interest, the mechanism by which plants produce them has remained shrouded in mystery until now. New work reveals a gene responsible for anthraquinone synthesis in plants. Their findings could help scientists cultivate a plant-based mechanism for harvesting these useful compounds in bulk quantities.
  • Pesticide deadly to bees now easily detected in honey

    A common insecticide that is a major hazard for honeybees is now effectively detected in honey thanks to a simple new method.
  • Machine learning: A breakthrough in the study of stellar nurseries

    Artificial intelligence can make it possible to see astrophysical phenomena that were previously beyond reach. Astronomers present the most comprehensive observations yet carried out of one of the star-forming regions closest to the Earth.
  • Team uses copper to image Alzheimer's aggregates in the brain

    A proof-of-concept study conducted in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease offers new evidence that copper isotopes can be used to detect the amyloid-beta protein deposits that form in the brains of people living with -- or at risk of developing -- Alzheimer's.
  • Commonly used antibiotic shows promise for combating Zika infections

    Researchers used a variety of advanced drug screening techniques to test out more than 10,000 compounds in search of a cure. To their surprise, they found that the widely used antibiotic methacycline was effective at preventing brain infections and reducing neurological problems associated with the virus in mice.
  • Clean Air Act saved 1.5 billion birds

    US pollution regulations meant to protect humans from dirty air are also saving birds. So concludes a new continent-wide study. Study authors found that improved air quality under a federal program to reduce ozone pollution may have averted the loss of 1.5 billion birds during the past 40 years.
  • Memories of past events retain remarkable fidelity even as we age

    Even though people tend to remember fewer details about past events as time goes by, the details they do remember are retained with remarkable fidelity, according to a new study. This finding holds true regardless of the age of the person or the amount of time that elapsed since the event took place.
  • CRISPRi screens reveal sources of metabolic robustness in E. coli

    Metabolic robustness, the ability of a metabolic system to buffer changes in its environment, is not always a welcome feature for microbiologists: it interferes with metabolic engineering or prevents that antibiotics kill bacteria. Therefore it is important to understand the mechanisms that enable metabolic robustness. A massively parallel CRISPRi screen demonstrated that E. colimetabolism is very robust against knockdowns of enzymes, and multi-omics data revealed the mechanisms behind it. In the future, the researchers want to apply this knowledge to build better models of metabolism, which enable rational-design of industrial microbes.
  • Novel chemical process a first step to making nuclear fuel with fire

    Developing safe and sustainable fuels for nuclear energy is an integral part of an energy security mission.
  • Researchers go underwater to study how sponge species vanished

    Researchers embarked on an underwater journey to solve a mystery: Why did sponges of the Agelas oroides species, which used to be common in the shallow waters along the Mediterranean coast of Israel, disappear? The researchers believe that the main reason for the disappearance of the sponges was the rise in seawater temperatures during the summer months, which in the past 60 years have risen by about 3°C (37°F).
  • Sestrin makes fruit flies live longer

    Researchers identify positive effector behind reduced food intake.
  • Strengthening the climate change scenario framework

    Over the past decade, the climate change research community developed a scenario framework that combines alternative futures of climate and society to facilitate integrated research and consistent assessment to inform policy. An international team of researchers assessed how well this framework is working and what challenges it faces.
  • Stronger memories can help us make sense of future changes

    Research finds a new relationship between memory and the ability to incorporate changes into one's understanding of the world.
  • Taking a shine to polymers: Fluorescent molecule betrays the breakdown of polymer materials

    Scientists have come up with a simple method to evaluate the strength and performance of polymer materials. They hope that their work will enable scientists and engineers to better evaluate the polymers they work with, and eventually synthesize better ones.
  • Secrets of the 'lost crops' revealed where bison roam

    Blame it on the bison. If not for the wooly, boulder-sized beasts that once roamed North America in vast herds, ancient people might have looked past the little barley that grew under those thundering hooves. But the people soon came to rely on little barley and other small-seeded native plants as staple food.
  • Why experiences are better gifts for older children

    What should we get for our kids this holiday? As children get older, giving them something they can experience (live through) instead of material things makes them happier, according to new research.
  • Stable catalysts for new energy

    Looking for the perfect catalyst is not only about finding the right material, but also about its orientation. Depending on the direction in which a crystal is cut and which of its atoms it thus presents to the outside world on its surface, its behavior can change dramatically.
  • Blast from the past

    Astronomers have discovered that CK Vulpeculae, first seen as a bright new star in 1670, is approximately five times farther away than previously thought. This makes the 1670 explosion of CK Vulpeculae much more energetic than previously estimated and puts it into a mysterious class of objects that are too bright to be members of the well-understood type of explosions known as novae, but too faint to be supernovae.
  • Channeling the immune system for head and neck cancer

    Researchers have discovered new clues into why some people with head and neck cancer respond to immunotherapy, while others don't.
  • Quantum magic squares

    The magic of mathematics is particularly reflected in magic squares. Recently, quantum physicists and mathematicians introduced the notion of the quantum magic square, and for the first time studied in detail the properties of this quantum version of magic squares.
  • Lung-on-chip provides new insight on body's response to early tuberculosis infection

    Scientists have developed a lung-on-chip model to study how the body responds to early tuberculosis (TB) infection.
  • Hormone found to switch off hunger could help tackle obesity

    A hormone that can suppress food intake and increase the feeling of fullness in mice has shown similar results in humans and non-human primates, says a new study.