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  • Sunil Gupta
EduGene Classes New Batch About to Start                                                             Physics Classes For NEET and JEE                                                                              Special Batches for IIT JEE NEET KVPY NTSE ISO Olympiad.

Contact Info

Experience
7 Years

Areas of Expertise
Electrodynamics, Electromagnetism, Mechanics and Optics, NEET, JEE

Institute Name
EduGene Classes

Preferred Time to Contact
8:00 AM to 8:00 PM

Bio

Physics Faculty
7 Years Experience for NEET and JEE.

      • Indian Army Military Nursing Service Exam Objective Type Question sample paper

        Competitive Exam

        Content Staff Nurse Exam - Objective Type Questions & Answers Staff Nurse Exam - Study Materials Medical Surgical Nursing Child Health Human Reproduction Nutrition Micro Biology Mental Illness Expected Questions & Answers Reasoning - General Intelligence General English Arithmetic - Numerical Ability Objective General Knowledge


      • Nursing Exam Sample Papers

        Competitive Exam

        The Madhya Pradesh Professional Examination Board conducts the General Nursing Training Selection Test (GNTST) and Pre Nursing Training Selection Test (PNST) for selection of prospective nurses.
        The present success guide for GNTST and PNST Training Selection Test 2017has been divided into five sections namely Physics, Chemistry, Botany, Zoology and General English, each sub-divided into number of chapters according to GNTST and PNST Training Selection Test 2017Exam curriculum. Each chapter in the book contains ample number of solved problems which have been designed on the lines of questions asked in previous years' GNTST and PNST training selection tests. Practice exercises containing unsolved problems have been provided at the end of each chapter to help aspirants practice the concepts covered in each chapter. Also 2016 GNTST and PNST Training Selection Test Solved Paper has been provided in the book to help aspirants get an insight into the recent examination pattern and the types of questions asked therein. The book also contains five practice sets which have been designed on the lines of questions asked in previous years' examinations to help aspirants self-analyse their preparation level for the upcoming GNTST and PNST Training Selection Test 2017.

        As the book contains ample study material as well as practice resources and has been designed according to the syllabi, it for sure will act as the best study package for the upcoming GNTST and PNST Training Selection Test2017.


      • GNST PNTST Nursing Exam

        Competitive Exam

        General Nursing Selection Test and Pre-Nursing Training Selection Test are held every year
        for candidates who want to pursue their career in this noble field. It is conducted by
        Professional Examination Board, Madhya Pradesh and asks questions from subjects like
        Physics, Chemistry, Botany, Zoology and General English.
        This book ‘General Nursing & Pre-Nursing Training Selection Test 2019’ has been revised
        to help candidates who are preparing for the upcoming GNTST and PNST. It covers the
        entire syllabus of Physics, Chemistry, Botany, Zoology and General English, in a highly
        sophisticated manner with diagrams, charts and figure wherever possible. It also includes
        Model Solved Paper of 2018 and Solved Papers of 2017 and 2016 for self-analysis. It is also
        enclosed with 5 Practice Sets to keep a record of comprehension and progress.
        Based on the exam method and trend of questions, it is a perfect book to give a complete
        guidance with entirely exam-relevant, accurate and to-the-point study material.

        TOC
        Model Solved Paper 2018, Solved Paper 2017, Solved Paper 2016, Physics, Chemistry,
        Botany, Zoology, General English, Practice Sets (1-5)


      • Objective Test Class 11

        Competitive Exam

        Test Paper With Solution seful For Teachers


      • Objective Test Droppers

        Competitive Exam

        Test Papers with Solutions for useful for Teachers.


      • Sample Paper By Resonance

        Competitive Exam

        Circular Motion Advanced Level Questions.


      • Practice Papers For IIT Advance

        Competitive Exam

        IIT Advance Previous Year Papers Available for Practice.


      • Class 12 CBSE Delhi Sample Paper

        Board Exam

        Class 12 CBSE Delhi Sample Paper... Reference 2016.
        Recommended By CBSE.


      • CBSE 12 Sample Paper All India

        Board Exam

        CBSE All India Class 12 Paper All Sets... Reference 2016
        Recommended By CBSE.


        • Wave Motion on String

          Board Exam

          Wave motion, propagation of disturbances—that is, deviations from a state of rest or equilibrium—from place to place in a regular and organized way. Most familiar are surface waves on water, but both sound and light travel as wavelike disturbances, and the motion of all subatomic particles exhibits wavelike properties.


        • Practice Problem Physics for Droppers

          Board Exam

          Unit I: Electrostatics
          Chapter-1: Electric Charges and Fields
          Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
          Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field.
          Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).
          Chapter-2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
          Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.
          Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.
          Unit II: Current Electricity
          Chapter-3: Current Electricity
          Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.
          Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell,combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.
          Potentiometer - principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.
          Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
          Chapter-4: Moving Charges and Magnetism
          Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.
          Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.
          Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids, Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.
          Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
          Chapter-5: Magnetism and Matter
          Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.
          Para-, dia- and ferro - magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.
          Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
          Chapter-6: Electromagnetic Induction
          Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s laws, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents.
          Self and mutual induction.
          Chapter-7: Alternating Current
          Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current.
          AC generator and transformer.
          Unit V: Electromagnetic waves
          Chapter-8: Electromagnetic Waves
          Basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their transverse nature (qualitative ideas only).
          Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
          Unit VI: Optics
          Chapter-9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
          Ray Optics:: Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.
          Scattering of light - blue colour of sky and reddish apprearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.
          Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
          Chapter-10: Wave Optics
          Wave optics: Wave front and Huygen's principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle. Interference Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarised light Brewster's law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.
          Unit VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
          Chapter-11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
          Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light.
          Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).
          Unit VIII: Atoms & Nuclei
          Chapter-12: Atoms
          Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.
          Chapter-13: Nuclei
          Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivityalpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law.
          Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.
          Unit IX: Electronic Devices
          Chapter-14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
          Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only)
          Semiconductor diode - I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier;
          Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode and their characteristics, zener diode as a voltage regulator.
          Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor and transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration), basic idea of analog and digital signals, Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).
          Unit X: Communication Systems
          Chapter-15: Communication Systems
          Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation, satellite communication. Need for modulation, amplitude modulation



          Unit I: Physical World and Measurement
          Chapter–1: Physical World
          Physics - scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society.
          Chapter–2: Units and Measurements
          Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures.
          Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.
          Unit II: Kinematics
          Chapter–3: Motion in a Straight Line
          Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity.
          Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion.Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity time and position-time graphs.
          Relations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).
          Chapter–4: Motion in a Plane
          Scalar and vector quantities; Position and displacement vectors, general vectors and their notations; equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity. Unit vector; Resolution of a vector in a plane - rectangular components. Scalar and Vector product of vectors.
          Motion in a plane, cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration-projectile motion. Uniform circular motion.
          Unit III: Laws of Motion
          Chapter–5: Laws of Motion
          Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton's first law of motion; momentum and Newton's second law of motion; impulse; Newton's third law of motion.
          Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.
          Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication.
          Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on a level circular road, vehicle on banked road).
          Unit IV: Work, Energy and Power
          Chapter–6: Work, Engery and Power
          Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power.
          Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces: conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces: motion in a vertical circle; elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.
          Unit V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body
          Chapter–7: System of Particles and Rotational Motion
          Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion.
          Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of a uniform rod.
          Moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, laws of conservation of angular momentum and its applications.
          Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equations of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions.
          Moment of inertia, radius of gyration.Values of moments of inertia, for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.
          Unit VI: Gravitation
          Chapter–8: Gravitation
          Keplar's laws of planetary motion.The universal law of gravitation.
          Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.
          Gravitational potential energy and gravitational potential. Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites.
          Unit VII: Properties of Bulk Matter
          Chapter–9: Mechanical Properties of Solids
          Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke's law, Young's modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus of rigidity, Poisson's ratio; elastic energy.
          Chapter–10: Mechanical Properties of Fluids
          Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal's law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes). Effect of gravity on fluid pressure.
          Viscosity, Stokes' law, terminal velocity, streamline and turbulent flow, critical velocity.Bernoulli's theorem and its applications.
          Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure across a curved surface, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.
          Chapter–11: Thermal Properties of Matter
          Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases, anomalous expansion of water; specific heat capacity; Cp, Cv - calorimetry; change of state - latent heat capacity.
          Heat transfer-conduction, convection and radiation, thermal conductivity, Qualitative ideas of Blackbody radiation, Wein's displacement Law, Stefan's law, Green house effect.
          Unit VIII: Thermodynamics
          Chapter–12: Thermodynamics
          Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of thermodynamics).Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes.
          Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engine and refrigerator.
          Unit IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gases and Kinetic Theory of Gases
          Chapter–13: Kinetic Theory
          Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done in compressing a gas.
          Kinetic theory of gases - assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic interpretation of temperature; rms speed of gas molecules; degrees of freedom, law of equi-partition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path, Avogadro's number.
          Unit X: Oscillations and Waves
          Chapter–14: Oscillations
          Periodic motion - time period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions.
          Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M. Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum derivation of expression for its time period.
          Free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.
          Chapter–15: Waves
          Wave motion. Transverse and longitudinal waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect.


        • Maths Practice Problems

          Board Exam

          Unit-I: Sets and Functions

          1. Sets

          Sets and their representations. Empty set. Finite and Infinite sets. Equal sets. Subsets. Subsets of a set of real numbers especially intervals (with notations). Power set. Universal set. Venn diagrams. Union and Intersection of sets. Difference of sets. Complement of a set. Properties of Complement Sets. Practical Problems based on sets.

          2. Relations & Functions

          Ordered pairs, Cartesian product of sets. Number of elements in the cartesian product of two finite sets. Cartesian product of the sets of real (upto R x R). Definition of relation, pictorial diagrams, domain, co-domain and range of a relation. Function as a special kind of relation from one set to another. Pictorial representation of a function, domain, co-domain and range of a function. Real valued functions, domain and range of these functions: constant, identity, polynomial, rational, modulus, signum, exponential, logarithmic and greatest integer functions, with their graphs. Sum, difference, product and quotients of functions.

          3. Trigonometric Functions

          Positive and negative angles. Measuring angles in radians and in degrees and conversion of one into other. Definition of trigonometric functions with the help of unit circle. Truth of the sin2x+cos2x=1, for all x. Signs of trigonometric functions. Domain and range of trignometric functions and their graphs. Expressing sin (x±y) and cos (x±y) in terms of sinx, siny, cosx & cosy and their simple application. Deducing identities like the following:

          syllabus 11 maths1

          Identities related to sin 2x, cos 2x, tan 2x, sin 3x, cos 3x and tan 3x. General solution of trigonometric equations of the type sin y = sin a, cos y = cos a and tan y = tan a.

          Unit-II: Algebra

          1. Principle of Mathematical Induction

          Process of the proof by induction, motivating the application of the method by looking at natural numbers as the least inductive subset of real numbers. The principle of mathematical induction and simple applications.

          2. Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations

          Need for complex numbers, especially √1, to be motivated by inability to solve some of the quardratic equations. Algebraic properties of complex numbers. Argand plane and polar representation of complex numbers. Statement of Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system. Square root of a complex number.

          3. Linear Inequalities

          Linear inequalities. Algebraic solutions of linear inequalities in one variable and their representation on the number line. Graphical solution of linear inequalities in two variables. Graphical solution of system of linear inequalities in two variables.

          4. Permutations and Combinations

          Fundamental principle of counting. Factorial n. (n!)Permutations and combinations, derivation of formulae and their connections, simple applications.

          5. Binomial Theorem

          History, statement and proof of the binomial theorem for positive integral indices. Pascal's triangle, General and middle term in binomial expansion, simple applications.

          6. Sequence and Series

          Sequence and Series. Arithmetic Progression (A.P.). Arithmetic Mean (A.M.) Geometric Progression (G.P.), general term of a G.P., sum of n terms of a G.P., Arithmetic and Geometric series infinite G.P. and its sum, geometric mean (G.M.), relation between A.M. and G.M. Formula for the following special sum:

          syllabus 11 maths2

          Unit-III: Coordinate Geometry

          1. Straight Lines

          Brief recall of two dimensional geometry from earlier classes. Shifting of origin. Slope of a line and angle between two lines. Various forms of equations of a line: parallel to axis, point-slope form, slope-intercept form, two-point form, intercept form and normal form. General equation of a line. Equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines. Distance of a point from a line.

          2. Conic Sections

          Sections of a cone: circles, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola; a point, a straight line and a pair of intersecting lines as a degenerated case of a conic section. Standard equations and simple properties of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola. Standard equation of a circle.

          3. Introduction to Three–dimensional Geometry

          Coordinate axes and coordinate planes in three dimensions. Coordinates of a point. Distance between two points and section formula.

          Unit-IV: Calculus

          1. Limits and Derivatives

          Derivative introduced as rate of change both as that of distance function and geometrically.

          Intutive idea of limit. Limits of polynomials and rational functions, trignometric, exponential and logarithmic functions. Definition of derivative, relate it to slope of tangent of a curve, derivative of sum, difference, product and quotient of functions. The derivative of polynomial and trignometric functions.

          Unit-V: Mathematical Reasoning

          1. Mathematical Reasoning

          Mathematically acceptable statements. Connecting words/ phrases - consolidating the understanding of "if and only if (necessary and sufficient) condition", "implies", "and/or", "implied by", "and", "or", "there exists" and their use through variety of examples related to real life and Mathematics. Validating the statements involving the connecting words difference between contradiction, converse and contrapositive.

          Unit-VI: Statistics and Probability

          1. Statistics

          Measures of dispersion; Range, mean deviation, variance and standard deviation of ungrouped/grouped data. Analysis of frequency distributions with equal means but different variances.

          2. Probability

          Random experiments; outcomes, sample spaces (set representation). Events; occurrence of events, 'not', 'and' and 'or' events, exhaustive events, mutually exclusive events, Axiomatic (set theoretic) probability, connections with the theories of earlier classes. Probability of an event, probability of 'not', 'and' and 'or' events.


        • Practice Sheets Maths All Exams

          Competitive Exam

          1. Relations and Functions

          Types of relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One to one and onto functions, composite functions, inverse of a function. Binary operations.

          2. Inverse Trigonometric Functions

          Definition, range, domain, principal value branch. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions. Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions.

          Unit II: Algebra

          1. Matrices

          Concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero and identity matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices. Operation on matrices: Addition and multiplication and multiplication with a scalar. Simple properties of addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication. Noncommutativity of multiplication of matrices and existence of non-zero matrices whose product is the zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order 2).Concept of elementary row and column operations. Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists; (Here all matrices will have real entries).

          2. Determinants

          Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 x 3 matrices), properties of determinants, minors, co-factors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix. Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples, solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.

          Unit III: Calculus

          1. Continuity and Differentiability

          Continuity and differentiability, derivative of composite functions, chain rule, derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit functions. Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions.

          Derivatives of logarithmic and exponential functions. Logarithmic differentiation, derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms. Second order derivatives. Rolle's and Lagrange's Mean Value Theorems (without proof) and their geometric interpretation.

          2. Applications of Derivatives

          Applications of derivatives: rate of change of bodies, increasing/decreasing functions, tangents and normals, use of derivatives in approximation, maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool). Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject as well as real-life situations).

          3. Integrals

          Integration as inverse process of differentiation.Integration of a variety of functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts, Evaluation of simple integrals of the following types and problems based on them.

          syllabus 12 maths integrals

          Definite integrals as a limit of a sum, Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof). Basic propertiesof definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals.

          4. Applications of the Integrals

          Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, circles/parabolas/ellipses (in standard form only), Area between any of the two above said curves (the region should be clearly identifiable).

          5. Differential Equations

          Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation.Formation of differential equation whose general solution is given.Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables solutions of homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree. Solutions of linear differential equation of the type:

          dy/dx + py = q, where p and q are functions of x or constants.

          dx/dy + px = q, where p and q are functions of y or constants.

          Unit IV: Vectors and Three-Dimensional Geometry

          1. Vectors

          Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector.Direction cosines and direction ratios of a vector. Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Definition, Geometrical Interpretation, properties and application of scalar (dot) product of vectors, vector (cross) product of vectors, scalar triple product of vectors.

          2. Three - dimensional Geometry

          Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line joining two points.Cartesian equation and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines, shortest distance between two lines.Cartesian and vector equation of a plane.Angle between (i) two lines, (ii) two planes, (iii) a line and a plane.Distance of a point from a plane.

          Unit V: Linear Programming

          1. Linear Programming

          Introduction, related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems, mathematical formulation of L.P. problems, graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions (bounded and unbounded), feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three non-trivial constraints).

          Unit VI: Probability

          1. Probability

          Conditional probability, multiplication theorem on probability. independent events, total probability, Baye's theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution, mean and variance of random variable. Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution.

          Unit-I: Sets and Functions

          1. Sets

          Sets and their representations. Empty set. Finite and Infinite sets. Equal sets. Subsets. Subsets of a set of real numbers especially intervals (with notations). Power set. Universal set. Venn diagrams. Union and Intersection of sets. Difference of sets. Complement of a set. Properties of Complement Sets. Practical Problems based on sets.

          2. Relations & Functions

          Ordered pairs, Cartesian product of sets. Number of elements in the cartesian product of two finite sets. Cartesian product of the sets of real (upto R x R). Definition of relation, pictorial diagrams, domain, co-domain and range of a relation. Function as a special kind of relation from one set to another. Pictorial representation of a function, domain, co-domain and range of a function. Real valued functions, domain and range of these functions: constant, identity, polynomial, rational, modulus, signum, exponential, logarithmic and greatest integer functions, with their graphs. Sum, difference, product and quotients of functions.

          3. Trigonometric Functions

          Positive and negative angles. Measuring angles in radians and in degrees and conversion of one into other. Definition of trigonometric functions with the help of unit circle. Truth of the sin2x+cos2x=1, for all x. Signs of trigonometric functions. Domain and range of trignometric functions and their graphs. Expressing sin (x±y) and cos (x±y) in terms of sinx, siny, cosx & cosy and their simple application. Deducing identities like the following:

          syllabus 11 maths1

          Identities related to sin 2x, cos 2x, tan 2x, sin 3x, cos 3x and tan 3x. General solution of trigonometric equations of the type sin y = sin a, cos y = cos a and tan y = tan a.

          Unit-II: Algebra

          1. Principle of Mathematical Induction

          Process of the proof by induction, motivating the application of the method by looking at natural numbers as the least inductive subset of real numbers. The principle of mathematical induction and simple applications.

          2. Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations

          Need for complex numbers, especially √1, to be motivated by inability to solve some of the quardratic equations. Algebraic properties of complex numbers. Argand plane and polar representation of complex numbers. Statement of Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system. Square root of a complex number.

          3. Linear Inequalities

          Linear inequalities. Algebraic solutions of linear inequalities in one variable and their representation on the number line. Graphical solution of linear inequalities in two variables. Graphical solution of system of linear inequalities in two variables.

          4. Permutations and Combinations

          Fundamental principle of counting. Factorial n. (n!)Permutations and combinations, derivation of formulae and their connections, simple applications.

          5. Binomial Theorem

          History, statement and proof of the binomial theorem for positive integral indices. Pascal's triangle, General and middle term in binomial expansion, simple applications.

          6. Sequence and Series

          Sequence and Series. Arithmetic Progression (A.P.). Arithmetic Mean (A.M.) Geometric Progression (G.P.), general term of a G.P., sum of n terms of a G.P., Arithmetic and Geometric series infinite G.P. and its sum, geometric mean (G.M.), relation between A.M. and G.M. Formula for the following special sum:

          syllabus 11 maths2

          Unit-III: Coordinate Geometry

          1. Straight Lines

          Brief recall of two dimensional geometry from earlier classes. Shifting of origin. Slope of a line and angle between two lines. Various forms of equations of a line: parallel to axis, point-slope form, slope-intercept form, two-point form, intercept form and normal form. General equation of a line. Equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines. Distance of a point from a line.

          2. Conic Sections

          Sections of a cone: circles, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola; a point, a straight line and a pair of intersecting lines as a degenerated case of a conic section. Standard equations and simple properties of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola. Standard equation of a circle.

          3. Introduction to Three–dimensional Geometry

          Coordinate axes and coordinate planes in three dimensions. Coordinates of a point. Distance between two points and section formula.

          Unit-IV: Calculus

          1. Limits and Derivatives

          Derivative introduced as rate of change both as that of distance function and geometrically.

          Intutive idea of limit. Limits of polynomials and rational functions, trignometric, exponential and logarithmic functions. Definition of derivative, relate it to slope of tangent of a curve, derivative of sum, difference, product and quotient of functions. The derivative of polynomial and trignometric functions.

          Unit-V: Mathematical Reasoning

          1. Mathematical Reasoning

          Mathematically acceptable statements. Connecting words/ phrases - consolidating the understanding of "if and only if (necessary and sufficient) condition", "implies", "and/or", "implied by", "and", "or", "there exists" and their use through variety of examples related to real life and Mathematics. Validating the statements involving the connecting words difference between contradiction, converse and contrapositive.

          Unit-VI: Statistics and Probability

          1. Statistics

          Measures of dispersion; Range, mean deviation, variance and standard deviation of ungrouped/grouped data. Analysis of frequency distributions with equal means but different variances.

          2. Probability

          Random experiments; outcomes, sample spaces (set representation). Events; occurrence of events, 'not', 'and' and 'or' events, exhaustive events, mutually exclusive events, Axiomatic (set theoretic) probability, connections with the theories of earlier classes. Probability of an event, probability of 'not', 'and' and 'or' events.


        • Vectors Algebra

          Board Exam

          The above link gives the collection of Questions and Solutions on the Chapter Vectors. Dot and Cross Product of Board Level


        • Errors and Approximation Worksheet

          Board Exam

          The above link gives the collection of Questions and Solutions of Errors and Approximation of Board level


        • MCQs and Other Practice Problems

          Competitive Exam

          MCQs and Other Practice Problems IIT JEE NEET and Class 12.


        • MCQs and Assersion Reason for IIT JEEand NEET

          Competitive Exam

          Practice Sheets for MCQs and Assersion Reason for IIT JEEand NEET


        • Class 12 All Topics Worksheets

          Board Exam

          Class 12 All Topics Worksheets With Solution.


        • Physics Worksheets All Topics Class 11

          Board Exam

          Class 11 All Topics Worksheets With Solution


        • Wave Optics

          Board Exam

          Wave front and Huygen's principle, relection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle. Interference Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarised light Brewster's law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.


        • Ray Optics

          Board Exam

          Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism. Scattering of light - blue colour of sky and reddish apprearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset, Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.


        • Magnetic Effect of Current, Magnetism and Matter

          Board Exam

          Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids, Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.Para-, dia- and ferro - magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting thei strengths. Permanent magnets.


        • Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current

          Board Exam

          Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s laws, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual induction.Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current.


        • Electromagnetic Waves

          Board Exam

          Basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their transverse nature (qualitative ideas only).Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.


        • Current Electricity

          Board Exam

          Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell,combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.Potentiometer - principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.


        • Electrostatics

          Board Exam

          Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric fleld.Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in paralll,capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.


        • Dual Nature of Light and Matters

          Board Exam

          Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light. Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).


        • Communication System

          Board Exam

          Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation, satellite communication. Need for modulation, amplitude modulation and frequency modulation, advantages of frequency modulation over amplitude modulation. Basic ideas about internet, mobile telephony and global positioning system (GPS).


        • Atoms And Nuclie

          Board Exam

          Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivityalpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law.Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.


        • System of Particles and Rotational Motion

          Board Exam

          Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion.Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of a uniform rod.Moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, laws of conservation of angular momentum and its applications.Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equations of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions.Moment of inertia, radius of gyration.Values of moments of inertia, for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.


        • Units and Dimensions

          Board Exam

          Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures.Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.


        • Work Energy and Power Worksheet

          Board Exam

          Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power. Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces: conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces: motion in a vertical circle; elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.


        • Waves & Oscillations Worksheet II

          Board Exam

          Periodic motion - time period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions.Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M. Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum derivation of expression for its time period.Free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.Wave motion. Transverse and longitudinal waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect.


        • Waves & Oscillations

          Board Exam

          Periodic motion - time period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions.Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M. Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum derivation of expression for its time period.Free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.Wave motion. Transverse and longitudinal waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect.


        • Newtons Law of Motion Worsheet IV

          Board Exam

          Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton's first law of motion; momentum and Newton's second law of motion; impulse; Newton's third law of motion.Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication.Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on a level circular road, vehicle on banked road).


        • Newtons Law of Motion Worsheet III

          Board Exam

          Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton's first law of motion; momentum and Newton's second law of motion; impulse; Newton's third law of motion.Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication.Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on a level circular road, vehicle on banked road).


        • Newtons Law of Motion Worsheet II

          Board Exam

          Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton's first law of motion; momentum and Newton's second law of motion; impulse; Newton's third law of motion.Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication.Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on a level circular road, vehicle on banked road).


        • Newtons Law of Motion Worsheet I

          Board Exam

          Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton's first law of motion; momentum and Newton's second law of motion; impulse; Newton's third law of motion.Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication.Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on a level circular road, vehicle on banked road).


        • Kinematics II Motion in Plane

          Board Exam

          Scalar and vector quantities; Position and displacement vectors, general vectors and their notations; equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity. Unit vector; Resolution of a vector in a plane - rectangular components. Scalar and Vector product of vectors.
          Motion in a plane, cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration-projectile motion. Uniform circular motion.


        • Kinematics

          Board Exam

          Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion.Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity time and position-time graphs. Relations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).


        • Gravitation Worksheet

          Board Exam

          Keplar's laws of planetary motion.The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth. Gravitational potential energy and gravitational potential. Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites.


          • Simulation Noninertial Frame

            a ball moving in straight line over a rotating circular disc.


          • Pascal's Law Animation

            How to pull up a heavy motor vehicle by a hydraulic jack.
            an animation to easily understand.


          • Simulation Interatomic Force

            See and Perform the Simulation.
            Realize the force of attraction and repulsion between atoms with respect to distance.


          • Energy Conservation

            Conservation of Energy Performed with simulation
            choose parameters as your wish and see the results in graphics.


          • Rainbow at home

            simplest demonstartion how to make Rainbow at my home.


          • Prism : Dispersion of light

            Simple experiment to view the constituent colours of white light
            Prism
            Dispersion of Light
            Rainbow formation
            Newton's color wheel
            .


          • Bending of Light Simulation

            Topics
            Snell's Law
            Refraction
            Reflection
            Optics
            Prisms
            Lenses
            Light
            Description
            Explore bending of light between two media with different indices of refraction. See how changing from air to water to glass changes the bending angle. Play with prisms of different shapes and make rainbows.

            Sample Learning Goals
            Explain how light bends at the interface between two media and what determines the angle.
            Apply Snell’s law to a laser beam incident on the interface between media.
            Describe how the speed and wavelength of light changes in different media.
            Describe the effect of changing wavelength on the angle of refraction.
            Explain how a prism creates a rainbow.


          • Simulations Ohm's Law

            Topics
            Ohm's Law
            Circuits
            Current
            Resistance
            Voltage
            Description
            See how the equation form of Ohm's law relates to a simple circuit. Adjust the voltage and resistance, and see the current change according to Ohm's law.

            Sample Learning Goals
            Predict how current will change when resistance of the circuit is fixed and voltage is varied.
            Predict how current will change when voltage of the circuit is fixed and resistance is varied.


          • Faraday's Law Simulation

            Topics
            Faraday's Law
            Magnetic Field
            Magnets
            Description
            Investigate Faraday's law and how a changing magnetic flux can produce a flow of electricity!

            Sample Learning Goals
            Explain what happens when the magnet moves through the coil at different speeds and how this affects the brightness of the bulb and the magnitude & sign of the voltage.
            Explain the difference between moving the magnet through the coil from the right side versus the left side.
            Explain the difference between moving magnet through the big coil versus the smaller coil.


          • Buoyant Force

            Topics
            Gas
            Buoyancy
            Description
            Experiment with a helium balloon, a hot air balloon, or a rigid sphere filled with different gases. Discover what makes some balloons float and others sink.

            Sample Learning Goals
            Determine what causes the the balloon, rigid sphere, and helium balloon to rise up or fall down in the box.
            Predict how changing a variable among P, V, T, and number influences the motion of the balloons.


          • Simulations for Spring Mass and Oscillations

            Springs
            Hooke's Law
            Conservation of Energy
            Measurement
            Description
            A realistic mass and spring laboratory. Hang masses from springs and adjust the spring stiffness and damping. You can even slow time. Transport the lab to different planets. A chart shows the kinetic, potential, and thermal energy for each spring.

            Sample Learning Goals
            Explain the Conservation of Mechanical Energy concept using kinetic, elastic potential, and gravitational potential energy.
            Use your understanding of how a spring scale works to determine the mass of an unknown object.
            Find the value of g on Planet X.


          • Simulation Solar System and Gravitation

            Motion
            Acceleration
            Velocity
            Position
            Gravity
            Description
            Build your own system of heavenly bodies and watch the gravitational ballet. With this orbit simulator, you can set initial positions, velocities, and masses of 2, 3, or 4 bodies, and then see them orbit each other.

            Sample Learning Goals
            Predict the necessary mass, velocity, and distance from the sun of a planet in order for this planet to make a circular orbit around a sun.
            What happens when you increase or decrease the mass of the planet, but keep everything else constant? Does this agree with your prediction?
            What happens to the orbit of the planet when you increase or decrease the magnitude of the velocity of the planet, but keep everything else constant?
            What happens to the planet's orbit when the increase or decrease the initial distance between the planet and the sun?


          • Normal Modes 1D & 2D

            Simulations
            Oscillator
            Normal Modes
            Polarization
            Mass Spring System
            Frequency
            Amplitude
            Phase
            Description
            Play with a 1D or 2D system of coupled mass-spring oscillators. Vary the number of masses, set the initial conditions, and watch the system evolve. See the spectrum of normal modes for arbitrary motion. See longitudinal or transverse modes in the 1D system.

            Sample Learning Goals
            Explain what a normal mode is.
            Explain what are the frequency, the amplitude, and the phase of a normal mode.
            Explain why different normal modes have different frequencies and why higher-numbered modes have higher frequencies.
            Identify how many normal modes a given system has and be able to sketch the individual modes qualitatively, for both 1D and 2D systems.
            Explain the distinction between transverse and longitudinal normal modes in a 1D system.
            Explain how adjusting the phase of a normal mode affects the motion of the system.
            Explain qualitatively how any arbitrary state of the system can be written as a sum of normal modes; that is, explain the superposition principle.
            Explain which properties of the system are set by the initial conditions, which properties are time-independent, and which properties are time-dependent.
            Explain why striking a metal plate in one spot raises the temperature of the plate.


          • Equilibrium of Forces

            Simulation
            Balance
            Proportional Reasoning
            Torque
            Lever Arm
            Rotational Equilibrium
            Description
            Play with objects on a teeter totter to learn about balance. Test what you've learned by trying the Balance Challenge game.

            Sample Learning Goals
            Predict how objects of various masses can be used to make a plank balance.
            Predict how changing the positions of the masses on the plank will affect the motion of the plank.
            Write rules to predict which way a plank will tilt when objects are placed on it.
            Use your rules to solve puzzles about balancing.


          • Simulations Motion 2-Dimention

            Simlations
            Motion
            Acceleration
            Velocity
            Description
            Try the new "Ladybug Motion 2D" simulation for the latest updated version. Learn about position, velocity, and acceleration vectors. Move the ball with the mouse or let the simulation move the ball in four types of motion (2 types of linear, simple harmonic, circle).

            Sample Learning Goals
            Is the velocity vector blue or green? How can you tell?
            Is the acceleration vector blue or green? How can you tell?
            Explain why the velocity and acceleration vectors behave as they do for the preset motions (linear acceleration I, II, circular motion, & harmonic motion).


          • Forces and Motion Simulations and Demonstration

            Simlations
            Force
            Position
            Velocity
            Acceleration
            Description
            Explore forces and motion as you push household objects up and down a ramp. Lower and raise the ramp to see how the angle of inclination affects the parallel forces. Graphs show forces, energy and work.

            Sample Learning Goals
            Predict, qualitatively, how an external force will affect the speed and direction of an object's motion.
            Explain the effects with the help of a free body diagram.
            Use free body diagrams to draw position, velocity, acceleration and force graphs and vice versa.
            Explain how the graphs relate to one another.
            Given a scenario or a graph, sketch all four graphs.


          • Projectile motion - Demonstration and Simulation by PHET

            Simulations and Demonstration
            Projectile Motion
            Angle
            Initial Speed
            Mass
            Air Resistance
            Description
            Blast a Buick out of a cannon! Learn about projectile motion by firing various objects. Set the angle, initial speed, and mass. Add air resistance. Make a game out of this simulation by trying to hit a target.

            Sample Learning Goals
            Predict how varying initial conditions affect a projectile path(various objects, angles, initial speed, mass, diameter, initial height, with and without air resistance).
            Use reasoning to explain the predictions.
            Explain common projectile motion terms in their own words. (launch angle, initial speed, initial height, range, final height, time).
            Describe why using the simulation is a good method for studying projectiles


          • Gravity and Orbits

            Topics
            Gravitational Force
            Circular Motion
            Astronomy
            Description
            Move the sun, earth, moon and space station to see how it affects their gravitational forces and orbital paths. Visualize the sizes and distances between different heavenly bodies, and turn off gravity to see what would happen without it!

            Sample Learning Goals
            Describe the relationship between the Sun, Earth, Moon and space station, including orbits and positions
            Describe the size and distance between the Sun, Earth, Moon and space station
            Explain how gravity controls the motion of our solar system
            Identify the variables that affect the strength of gravity
            Predict how motion would change if gravity was stronger or weaker


          • Hooks law

            Interactive Simulation by PHET.
            Springs
            Force
            Potential Energy
            Hooke's Law
            Vectors
            Spring Constant
            Stretch and compress springs to explore the relationships between force, spring constant, displacement, and potential energy! Investigate what happens when two springs are connected in series and parallel.
            Explain the relationships between applied force, spring force, spring constant, displacement, and potential energy.
            Describe how connecting two springs in series or parallel affects the effective spring constant and the spring forces.
            Predict how the potential energy stored in the spring changes as the spring constant and displacement change.


          • Demonstration for Real Image by Concave Mirror

            This video features a device that uses a concave mirror to project the image of a small light bulb into an empty light socket. While it is possible to hide the source of the projected light from the viewers, I have found it better to allow students to easily see the source of the hidden light for a better understanding of the behavior of light rays reflected by a concave mirror.


          • Project Report Fullwave Rectifier

            In a full wave rectifier circuit we use two diodes, one for each half of the wave. A multiple winding transformer is used whose secondary winding is split equally into two halves with a common center tapped connection.


          • Half Deflection : Galvanometer Resistance

            To determine resistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and to find its figure of merit.


          • Internal Resistance: Potentiometer

            Objective: To determine the internal resistance of given primary cell using potentiometer.


          • Comparision of EMFs of Two Cells Using Potentiometer

            Objective: To compare the emf ’s of two given primary cells using potentiometer.


          • Simply Make Vacuum Cleaner

            Learn how to make a vacuum cleaner using bottle, washing machine pipe and single dc motor, its very simple homemade vacuum cleaner show how the vacuum cleaner works.


          • Under Water Candle

            How to burn a candle underwater. Simple science trick. Watch the flame continue to burn beneath the water level as the wax holds back the water.


            • Were I a photon, how would I perceive the world and how the world would perceive me?

              It is known from the Earth that it traverses a distance of one meter in 2.15*10-3 seconds; or a second is the time that it takes to move 465 meters. Thus the photon moves 3*108 meters in a second. And if we define the unit of measure on the basis of the photon’s motion, in fact a meter is the distance that the photon travels in 33.33*10-10 seconds. It can, therefore, advance thousands of meters in a hundredth of a second.Let us say that the photon is an object or a physical person who performs his tasks at such an incredible speed; how can he perceive, this fast and cunning photon, the rest of the world?


            • Black Light

              Know that the photon has a short life but also a long life you’d think that it has seen the whole Universe. If you look at the corners of the Universe, you see flashing lights that come to you and carry the secrets of 13 billion years ago. The photon, as a messenger, revive the past moments; as a little angel illustrates the whole universe; without it, the darkness would dominate the universe… darkness, grief, one over another ... This courageous minuscule has brought us with him the lighting of life, the existence, the heat ..The domain of electromagnetic spectrum is very large and a small region of it is called the Visible Region. It contains packets of elemental energy, from red to violet. Apart from this, there is also the partially visible region that is clearly perceptible for two observer groups. The lower region called Infrared and the upper one called Ultraviolet


            • New Definition of the Colorfulness of Photon

              n SALEH THEORY, we believe on the helical motion of photon, of which r is the gyroradius around an imaginary axis. This means that the photon has two simultaneous motions: rectilinear motion at constant speed and rotary motion at constant angular velocity.The visible spectrum is one of the concepts that have attracted much comment. In SALEH THEORY the distinction of spectrums is due to the gyroradius; and its changes induce the colorfulness. In fact, the increase of the gyroradius means reciprocally the widening of the wavelength. For example, the long wavelength of the red spectrum is a result of the high value of its gyroradius r, while for the blue spectrum, it’s the opposite.


            • One billion suns: World's brightest laser sparks new behavior in light

              By focusing laser light to a brightness one billion times greater than the surface of the sun -- the brightest light ever produced on Earth -- the physicists have observed changes in a vision-enabling interaction between light and matter.


            • How the Sun Shines

              What makes the sun shine? How does the sun produce the vast amount of energy necessary to support life on earth? These questions challenged scientists for a hundred and fifty years, beginning in the middle of the nineteenth century. Theoretical physicists battled geologists and evolutionary biologists in a heated controversy over who had the correct answer. Why was there so much fuss about this scientific puzzle? The nineteenth-century astronomer John Herschel described eloquently the fundamental role of sunshine in all of human life in his 1833 Treatise on Astronomy:


            • History’s First Science Experiment

              I’m going to talk about two of the first science experiments in recorded history. One was allegedly performed by the Prophet Elijah in Israel in the 800s BC [1], the other by the Pharaoh Psammetichus in Egypt in the 600s BC.


            • U.S. Solar Eclipse of Aug. 21, 2017

              I've been waiting for this for a long time and it's just a little more than a year away now. This will be the opportunity of a lifetime for people in the U.S. The 2017 solar eclipse will be visible across the width of the entire U.S! The points of Greatest Eclipse and Greatest Duration are going to occur on opposite sides of the Kentucky - Illinois border.


            • Frame of Refference

              My essay Explaining Rolling Motion raised some commentary about frames of reference and their equivalence when solving physics problems. I wish to pursue the idea of shifting one’s frame of reference because its use is relatively uncommon in introductory physics courses.


            • General Relativity as a Guage Theory

              The fundamental interactions of the Standard Model are described by Yang-Mills theory.